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Salazar70bearb_grau.jpg Lorenzo Salazar

The Ventotene Manifesto and the European Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

1 October 2016 (updated 6 months, 3 weeks ago) // english

Altiero Spinelli (1907-1986) was an Italian politician, political opponent of the fascist regime in Italy and, for this reason, once interned on the island of Ventotene during World War II. On the small southern Italian island in the Gulf of Gaeta, together with Ernesto Rossi and Eugenio Colorni, he wrote the “Manifesto” – entitled “Per un’Europa libera e unita” (For a Free and United Europe) − calling for the establishment of a European federation as a reaction to the destructive excesses of nationalism, which had led to the Second World War. The Manifesto of June 1941 ideologically underpins the idea... Read more

Valentina Covolo

L’échange d’informations entre autorités administratives et judiciaires
Premiers éclaircissements tirés de l’arrêt w ebmindlicences, C-419/14

8 September 2016 // french

I. Introduction Nombreux sont les domaines règlementés par le droit de l’Union qui s’appuient sur un double système de contrôle et de sanction. Le parfait exemple est la lutte contre la fraude préjudiciable aux intérêts financiers de l’UE, qui fait l’objet aussi bien d’enquêtes administratives que de poursuites pénales.1 Le développement de ce que la littérature anglophone appelle « double track enforcement systems » présuppose par son essence même la coordination et coopération entre autorités administratives, d’une part, et autorités policières et judiciaires, d’autre part.2 La question s’avère d’autant plus complexe que l’éventail de modèles existants est vaste et varié.... Read more

Angelo Marletta

Interinstitutional Relationship of European Bodies in the Fight against Crimes Affecting the EU’s Financial Interests
Past Experience and Future Models

8 September 2016 // english

I. Protecting the EU’s Financial Interests: A Shared Responsibility in a Complex Enforcement Environment The protection of the EU’s financial interests (PIF) implies a shared responsibility on the part of both the Union and the Member States. In this respect, Art. 325 para. 1 TFEU recalls the multiple levels of cooperation required to counter and combat fraud and other illegal activities affecting the financial interests of the Union. We can identify at least three levels or dimensions of cooperation in the PIF domain: The horizontal cooperation between the EU actors holding specific PIF responsibilities; The horizontal cooperation between the competent... Read more

Michele Simonato

OLAF Investigations in a Multi-Level System
Legal obstacles to Effective Enforcement

1 September 2016 // english

I. Introduction The protection of the EU budget is a shared responsibility between the EU – namely the Commission – and the Member States.1 In principle, the national (administrative or judicial) authorities conduct investigations and sanction those violations of EU law that are detrimental to EU financial interests, both when they concern expenditure (e.g., structural funds) and revenue (e.g., customs duties). The readers of eucrim are certainly familiar with the developments in EU law that have taken place since the 1970s, which have entailed increasing EU intervention on the punitive aspects of the enforcement of EU policies. Such intervention mainly... Read more

Editorial Guest Editorial 3/2016

1 September 2016 // english

Dear Readers, Cooperation on the part of national courts and executive authorities in the criminal law field is constitutive for the functioning of the area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ). Focusing on a more or less voluntary cooperation on the part of the national authorities might initially have been an indication of the Member States’ reluctance to also give up sovereignty in the field of criminal law and criminal justice. Today, however, it is clear that the AFSJ cannot be realized without such cooperation. It is therefore of programmatic significance when “cooperation” is expressly referred to in the relevant... Read more

Stijn Lamberigts

The Directive on the Presumption of Innocence
A Missed opportunity for Legal Persons

8 May 2016 // english

The recently adopted Directive on the strengthening of certain aspects of the presumption of innocence and the right to be present at trial in criminal proceedings1 (hereafter: Directive on the Presumption of Innocence)2 applies exclusively to natural persons.3 This is in contrast to previously adopted directives of the Roadmap for strengthening procedural rights in criminal proceedings4 which applied to suspected or accused persons and did not explicitly exclude legal persons.5 Therefore, one could argue that legal persons could benefit from the implementation of relevant provisions of the previously adopted directives of the Roadmap6 but that they cannot infer rights from... Read more