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Dr. Tatiana Tropina

The Evolving Structure of Online Criminality

How Cybercrime Is Getting Organised

1 December 2012 // english

Increasing dependency of the society on the information technologies raises concerns over vulnerabilities in cyberspace and the “dark side” of the information networks. The growth of digital operations in legitimate markets is one of the vital factors for the economic development. However, as markets and trading themselves have always attracted criminals seeking benefits from illegal activities, digital networks become a key enabler for the growth of cybercrime, both with regard to committing traditional crimes in the Internet and to developing new types of computer misuse. Cybercrime has been evolving in line with how society uses digital networks, reacting to every... Read more

Maria Christina Bruno

Anti-Money Laundering: New Obligations Imposed by the 2012 Guardia di Finanza Circular in Italy

1 December 2012 // english

The initial source of the money laundering legislation that is still in full development is Directive 1991/308/EU (also known as the “first directive”) on prevention of the financial system from laundering the proceeds of criminal activities. Directive 2001/97/EU (the “second directive”) on the subject of prevention of employment of the financial system for laundering the proceeds of illicit activities demands a higher standard of obligations on the part of the Member States and extends the scope of the subjects upon whom such obligations are imposed. Italian Legislative Order 231/2007 brings into effect the Directive 2005/60/EU (the “third directive”). It introduces... Read more

Desterbeck_sw..jpg Francis Desterbeck

The Payment of Fiscal and Social Debts with Seized Money, that Has to Be Reimbursed, in Belgium

Where Treasury, Social Security, and Justice Meet

14 August 2011 (updated 4 years, 9 months ago) // english

By law of 27 March 2003, the Central Office for Seizure and Confiscation (COSC) was created in Belgium. The new institution, established within the Office of Public Prosecutors, assists the judicial authorities in criminal matters in the areas of seizure of assets, the implementation of criminal procedure with a view to the confiscation of assets, and the enforcement of final and conclusive sentences and orders involving confiscation of assets.1 One of the forms of assistance consists of the management of all cash, seized in criminal matters all over the country. By law of 20 July 2005, a new provision was... Read more

Dr. Christian Johnson / Stefanie Plötzgen-Kamradt

Gegenseitige Anerkennung von Geldstrafen und Geldbußen in Deutschland – zur Umsetzung des Rahmenbeschlusses 2005/214/JI in das deutsche Recht

1 August 2011 // german

Council Framework Decision 2005/214/JHA on the application of the principle of mutual recognition to financial penalties was implemented into German law in October 2010. With this instrument, it is for the first time possible to enforce financial penalties in all Member States of the European Union using a uniform procedure, provided that the Member States have adopted the necessary implementation laws. FD 2005/214/JHA is governed by the principle of mutual recognition, which became a cornerstone of cooperation both in civil and in criminal matters at the Council meeting in Tampere in 1999. In particular, the concept of list offences under Art 5 of the FD, where double criminality is not verified by the executing State, is based upon this principle.
In Germany, the Federal Office of Justice (Bundesamt für Justiz) in Bonn has been designated as the competent authority for incoming and outgoing requests under FD 2005/214/JHA. The following article gives … Read more