FRA Handbook on Profiling
In December 2018, FRA published a handbook aiming to contribute to the prevention of unlawful profiling.
The handbook explains what profiling is, when it is unlawful, and what the potential negative impacts of unlawful profiling for law enforcement and border management could be. Furthermore, it explains the principle and practice of lawful profiling and looks at algorithmic profiling and its data protection framework.
The handbook is primarily designed for those responsible for training law enforcement and border management officials. Nevertheless, it may also help officers in mid-level positions to implement profiling techniques lawfully.